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ENVIRONMETAL ISSUES IN PAKISTAN:

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Environmental issues in Pakistan include air pollutionwater pollutionnoise pollutionclimate change, pesticide misuse, soil erosionnatural disasters and desertification.[1] According to the latest global environment performance index (EPI) ranking Pakistan is in the list of countries which suffer from poor air quality. The climatic changes and global warming are most alarming issues risking millions of life across country. The major reasons of these environmental issues are carbon emission, increasing populations, and deforestation. [2]

These are serious environmental  issuesproblems that Pakistan is facing, and they are getting worse as the country’s economy expands and the population grows. Although NGOs and government departments have taken initiatives to stop environmental degradation, Pakistan’s environmental issues still remain.

Contents:

 

Economic consequences of environmental degradation[edit]

The majority of Pakistan’s industrial sectors, for example fishing and agriculture, which count for more than one fourth of the output and two fifths of employment in Pakistan,[1] are highly dependent on the country’s natural resources. Hence, in order to sustain economic growth there is a high demand on already scarce natural resources. However it is ironic that what the country depends on for its growth is also what threatens the future welfare and success of the country. According to the World Bank,[3] 70% of Pakistan’s population live in rural areas and are already stricken by high poverty levels. These people depend on natural resources to provide income and tend to overuse these resources. This leads to further degradation of the environment and subsequently increases poverty. This has led to what the World Bank refers to as a “vicious downward spiral of impoverishment and environmental degradation.” [3]

Pollution[edit]

Trash thrown in an empty plot in Karachi, Pakistan.

The World Bank report in 2013 stated that Pakistan’s top environmental issues include air pollution, inadequate supply of uncontaminated drinking water, noise pollution and the health deterioration of urban and rural populations due to pollution. These environmental concerns not only harm Pakistanis citizens but also pose a serious threat to the country’s economy. The report also stated that the increase in industrializationurbanization and motorization will inevitably worsen this problem.[4]

Water pollution[edit]

 

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Pakistan

Pakistan is classified as a water stressed nation by the World Bank. There are seven main rivers that enter Pakistan from upper riparian states, including the Kabul River that enters from Afghanistan, and the Indus RiverJhelum RiverChenab RiverRavi River, and Sutlej River that enter from India. Among these the Ravi and Sutlej are diverted in upstream India, for which consumptive use was awarded to India under the Indus Waters Treaty this was the treaty signed in by the people  signed in 1960 by the people of pakistanis and the Indians India and Pakistan. Canal networks from the Indus (main stem), Jhelum River, and Chenab River supply water throughout the agricultural plains in Punjab and in Sindh, while the rest of the country has very little access to other fresh water.[1] Potential scarcity of water not only threatens Pakistan’s economy but also poses a serious threat to the lives of millions of Pakistanis. this was all because of all the indians they were the one who stopped their supply of fresh drinking water from Pakistan and this is how they signed a treaty it was named as the Indus basin treaty.

Lower flows due to the Indus Waters Treaty, as well as diversion to canals, means that lower dilution flows are available within the rivers of Pakistan. On the other hand, water pollution generation is increasing largely due to the growing economy and population, and an almost complete lack of water treatment. The sources for water pollution include the over use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, the dumping of industrial effluent into lakes and rivers, untreated sewage being dumped into rivers and the ocean, and contaminated pipelines were being used to transport water.[5] due to the contamination in their fresh drinking water made it harder for Pakistanis to find fresh and clean and pure water supplies and increases the prevalence of waterborne diseases. Consequently, most of the reported health problems in Pakistan are either a direct or indirect result of polluted water.[6] 45% of infant deaths are due to diarrhea and 60% to overall waterborne diseases.[7] and till the past till today in pakistan there are cerious causes and shortages in fresh water in todays generation also in pakistan people are unable to get to the fresh water supplies and people are suffering

Noise pollution[edit]

The megacities in Pakistan, such as KarachiLahoreIslamabad and Rawalpindi, face the issue of noise pollution. The main source of this pollution is the traffic noise caused by buses, cars, trucks, rickshaws and water tankers. A study showed that on one of Karachi’s main roads, the average noise level was around 90 dB and was capable of reaching about 110 dB. This is much higher than the ISO‘s noise level standard of 70 dB, which is not meant to be harmful to the human ear. However, the study also concluded that in Pakistan, “the traffic noise levels limit as laid down by National Environment Quality standards, Environmental Protection Agency is 85 dB”. and it effects on environment also. [8]

This high level of noise pollution can cause auditory and non-auditory health issues. Auditory issues include the loss of auditory sensory cells; non-auditory health issues include sleep disturbance, noise and cardiovascular disease, endocrine response to noise and psychiatric disorder.[9] There are very few, vague laws and policies in regards to noise levels. There is no accountability, and while the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies receive dozens of complaints on noise pollution from the public, these agencies are unable to take action due to legal constraints and the absence of national noise level standards.[10]

Air pollution[edit]

Air pollution is a growing environmental problem in most major cities of Pakistan. According to a World Bank report, “Karachi’s urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy”. The inefficient use of energy, an increase in the number of vehicles used daily, an increase in unregulated industrial emissions and the burning of garbage and plastic and fossil fuels have contributed the most to air pollution in urban areas and rural areas According of recent study, the Sindh Environment Protection Department claims that the average level of pollution in big cities is approximately four times higher than the World Health Organization’s limits. These emissions have detrimental effects, including “respiratory diseases, reduced visibility, loss of  natural vegetation and an effect on the growth of plants.”

One of the greatest contributors to air pollution is industrial activity.

 The inadequate air emission treatments and lack of regulatory control over industrial activity has contributed to the deterioration of ambient air quality in major cities. In addition, the common practice of burning massive amounts of solid waste, including plastic and rubber, on street corners by the public, releases toxic gases, which are extremely harmful for residents in the area.

In 2018, a young entrepreneur in Karachi, Abid Omar, launched the Pakistan Air Quality Initiative to monitor air quality in Pakistan’s big cities. The project aims to increase the availability of air quality data in Pakistan and make citizens more aware of the health impacts of air pollution.[11] The US State Department has set up three high-quality air quality monitoring stations at three locations in Pakistan.[12]

Specifically, studies have revealed the negative consequences air pollution can happen on our earth on the welfare of those impacted. Studies have revealed how the constant fluctuation of particulate matter passes a major threat to Pakistan’s citizens who are frequently exposed to harmful levels of air pollution. Suspended Particulate Matter, which has been linked to respiratory illnesses which has been found in some major harmful quantities in Pakistan’s major urban areas. Some strategies are that can be used to effectively manage Pakistan’s urban air pollution problems include the advancements to road designs and to improvement of transport sustainability, increased use of abatement policy by the Pakistani government, and a conversion to clean fuel energy alternatives like compressed natural gas (C.N.G).

Climate change[edit]

See also: Indus River § Effects of climate change on the river

This section is an excerpt from Climate change in Pakistan[edit]

Climate change is expected to cause wide reaching effects on Pakistan. In addition to increased heat and other extreme weather conditions and drought conditions in some parts of the country, the melting of glaciers  and in the Himalayas, threatens the volumetric eruption flow rate. of many of the most important rivers of Pakistan. As a result of ongoing climate change, the climate of Pakistan has become increasingly volatile over the past several decades; this trend is expected to continue.

Pakistan makes a tiny contribution to total global greenhouse gas (GHG). emissions, less than 1% (among the lowest in the world)[13] but it is among the countries most vulnerable to climate change, and it has very low technical and financial capacity to adapt to its adverse impacts.[14] Food and water security, as well as large displacement of populations are already being threatened. Members of the public expect to have widespread impacts on their lives.[15]

Natural disasters[edit]

Main article: List of natural disasters in Pakistan

Due to Pakistan’s diverse land and climatic conditions, it is prone to different forms of natural disasters, including earthquakesfloodstsunamisdroughtscyclones and hurricanes.[1] A disaster management report claims that the provinces of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB), Balochistan and AJK are vulnerable seismic regions and hence highly susceptible to earthquakes, while Sindh and Punjab constantly suffer from floods because they are low-lying areas.[16]

Some of the worst natural disasters that Pakistan has faced include the 1935 Quetta earthquake when around 60,000 people were killed, in that earth quake of the Quetta in 1935 1950 floods when an estimated people died in that earth quake were 2900 and 900,000 people were left homeless, means they not in their homes they came to on road and it was just because of the earth quake which was held in the year1935 in Quetta the earth quake in the year:  1974 Hunza earthquake where around 5300 people were killed, the 2005 Kashmir quake that killed at least 73,000 and affected more than 1.5 million people, and the Pakistan floods of 2010 where 20 million people were affected.[17]

Conservation efforts[edit]

Main article: Conservation in Pakistan

The government has expressed concern about environmental threats to economic growth and social development and since the early 1990s has addressed environmental concerns with new legislation and institutions such as the Pakistan Environment Protection Council. However, foreign lenders provide most environmental protection funds, and only 0.04% of the government’s development budget goes to environmental protection. Thus, the government’s ability to enforce environmental regulations is limited, and private industries often lack the funds to meet environmental standards established by international trade organizations. Government of Pakistan start new campaign to the land and make more the Clean and Green and this how it took Pakistan to the overcome environmental issues.

Clean Green Champion Program[edit]

An initiative program named Clean Green Pakistan was launched in 2019 by Government of Pakistan.[18] The idea of initiative was to held a competition between cities of Pakistan in Cleanliness and Greenery. that who clean their city first and to make more people to come and join this competition  A web portal was launched where citizens can get registered and report their activities to earn points. Citizens would also be awarded medals when they reach a certain threshold of points.

Billion Tree Tsunami[edit]

The Billion Tree Tsunami was launched in 2014, by the government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan, as a response to the challenge of global warming. Pakistan’s Billion Tree Tsunami restores 350,000 hectares of forests and degraded land to surpass its Bonn Challenge commitment.[19] The project aimed at improving the ecosystems  was of classified forests, as well as privately owned waste and farm lands, and therefore entails working in close collaboration with concerned communities and stakeholders to ensure their meaningful participation through effectuating project promotion and extension services.[20] In just a year it has added three-quarters of a billion new trees, as part of a “tree tsunami” aimed at reversing worsening forest loss.[21] The projected was completed in August 2017, ahead of schedule.[22]

This remarkable initiative has been highly acknowledged by international media namely Washington Post,[23] VOA News,[24] The Hindu, REUTERS,[25] Aljazeera[21] and many others. Short fim like “Green Election Campaign” and ” Stop ” is a part of Cena Green Pakistan Effort.

National Conservation Strategy[edit]

The Conservation Strategy Report has three explicit objectives: conservation of natural resources, promotion of sustainable development, and improvement of efficiency in the use and management of resources. It sees itself as a “call for action” addressed to central and provincial governments, businesses, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), local communities, and individuals.

The primary agricultural nonpoint source pollutants are nutrients (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus), sediment, animal wastes, pesticides, and salts. Agricultural nonpoint sources enter surface water through direct surface runoff or through seepage to ground water that discharges to a surface water outlet. Various farming activities result in the erosion of soil particles. The sediment produced by erosion can damage fish habitat and wetlands, and often transports excess agricultural chemicals resulting in contaminated runoff. This runoff, in turn, affects changes to aquatic habitat such as temperature increases and decreased oxygen. The most common sources of excess nutrients in surface water from nonpoint sources are chemical fertilizers and manure from animal facilities. Such nutrients cause eutrophication in surface water. Pesticides used for pest control in agricultural operations can also contaminate surface as well as ground-water resources. Return flows, runoff, and leach ate from irrigated lands may transport sediment, nutrients, salts, and other materials. Finally, improper grazing practices in riparian areas, as well as upland areas, can also cause water quality degradation. The development of Pakistan is viewed as a multigenerational enterprise.

In seeking to transform attitudes and practices, the National Conservation Strategy recognizes that two key changes in values are needed: the restoration of the conservation ethic derived from Islamic moral values, called Qantas, and the revival of community spirit and responsibility, Haqooq ul Ibad.

The National Conservation Strategy Report recommends fourteen program areas for priority implementation: maintaining soils in croplands, increasing efficiency of irrigation and sewerage system protecting watersheds, supporting forestry and plantations, restoring rangelands and improving livestock, protecting water bodies and sustaining fisheries, conserving biodiversity, increasing energy efficiency, developing and deploying renewable resources, preventing or decreasing pollution, managing urban wastes, supporting institutions to manage common resources, integrating population and environmental programs, and preserving the cultural heritage. It identifies sixty-eight specific programs in these areas, each with a long-term goal and expected outputs and physical investments required within ten years. Special attention has been paid to the potential roles of environmental NGOs, women’s organizations, and international NGOs in working with the government in its conservation efforts. Recommendations from the National Conservation Strategy Report are incorporated in the Eighth Five-Year Plan (1993–98).

In a recent study conducted by the Global CLEAN campaign, it was found that the average temperature in Pakistan had risen by .2 degrees in only two years, This is a dramatic change and puts emphasis on climate change campaigns.

Land use

Protected areas[edit]

Main article: Protected areas of Pakistan

Pakistan has 14 national parks, 72 wildlife sanctuaries, 66 game reserves, 9 marine and littoral protected areas, 19 protected wetlands and a number of other protected grasslandsshrublandswoodlands and natural monuments.

International agreements[edit]

Pakistan is a party to several international agreements related to environment and climate. The most prominent among them are:

Treaties and agreements
Specific regions and seasLaw of the Sea, Ship Pollution (MARPOL 73/78)
Atmosphere and climateClimate ChangeOzone Layer ProtectionNuclear Test Ban
Biodiversityenvironment, and forestsDesertificationEndangered SpeciesEnvironmental ModificationWetlandsMarine Life Conservation
WastesHazardous Wastes
RiversIndus Waters Treaty

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up to:a b c d “The World News — Newz Anchor”. www.newzanchor.com. Retrieved 2016-11-04.
  2. ^ “The environmental issues in Pakistan”. The Frontier Post. 2018-10-03. Retrieved 2020-05-29.
  3. Jump up to:a b “11. Environmental Issues – World Bank” (PDF). worldbank.org. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  4. ^ Sánchez-Triana, Ernesto; Enriquez, Santiago; afzal, Javaid; Nakagawa, Akiko; Shuja Khan, Asif (2014). “Cleaning Pakistan’s Air: Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution” (PDF). www.worldbank.org. World Bank.
  5. ^ “Brief on Water Pollution” (PDF). environment.gov.pk. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  6. ^ Sabir, Ismat (28 November 2012). “Water is Becoming Scarce”. Pakistan Observer.
  7. ^ “Satellite Based Monitoring of Groundwater Storage Variations Over Indus Basin”(PDF). www.pcrwr.gov.pk. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resource, Ministry of Science & Technology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-11-13.
  8. ^ “Traffic Noise Pollution in Karachi, Pakistan” (PDF). Journal of Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences. 09.
  9. ^ “Exploring Noise Pollution, Source and its impacts: an anthropological Study of rawalpindi city” (PDF). Pakistan Association of Anthropology. ISSN 1013-5316. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-04. Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  10. ^ “Position Paper for environmental quality standards of noise in pakistan” (PDF). environment.gov.ok. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 30 October2016.
  11. ^ https://thediplomat.com/2018/08/pakistans-rising-air-pollution-crisis/
  12. ^ “U.S. Mission Pakistan Starts Publishing Air Quality Data”. U.S. Embassy & Consulates in Pakistan. 2019-04-30. Retrieved 2019-06-01.
  13. ^ “Pakistan crafts plan to cut carbon emissions 30% by 2025”. The Express Tribune. 10 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  14. ^ “Pakistan National Policy on Climate Change”. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-05-10.
  15. ^ Zaheer, Khadija; Colom, Anna. “Pakistan, How the people of Pakistan live with climate change and what communication can do” (PDF). www.bbc.co.uk/climateasia. BBC Media Action.
  16. ^ Irshad, Muhammad; Ali, Arshad; Iqbal, Shahid (April–June 2015). “Disaster Management System of Pakistan”. Acta Technica Corvininesis- Bulletin of Engineering. 8 (2). ISSN 2067-3809.
  17. ^ “Ten worst disasters in Pakistan”. DAWN.COM. 2011-09-24. Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  18. ^ Ansari, Ramiz (2019-11-25). “PM Launches Clean Green Champion Program”. Blog by Ramiz Ansari. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
  19. ^ “Pakistan (KPK)”. Bonn Challenge. Retrieved 2019-03-27.
  20. ^ “About Billion Tree Tsunami Afforestation Project”. few.kp.gov.pk. Retrieved 2019-03-27.
  21. Jump up to:a b “Pakistan investing $150m in billion-tree reforestation”. www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2019-03-27.
  22. ^ “Pakistan has planted over a billion trees”. World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2019-03-27.
  23. ^ https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100011342442800&ref=br_rs“In Pakistan, an ambitious effort to plant 10 billion trees takes root”. Washington Post. Retrieved 2019-03-27.
  24. ^ “Pakistan to Plant ’10 Billion Trees. VOA. Retrieved 2019-03-27.
  25. ^ “FEATURE-‘Billion tree tsunami’ surges across northern Pakistan”. Reuters. 2017-03-16. Retrieved 2019-03-27.

External links[edit]

show vte Environmental issues in Asia
show vte Geography of Pakistan related topics
show vte Socio-economic issues in Pakistan
show vtePakistan

comparative essay: city life v/s village life.

what do you understand by the word city life and village life city life means a modern life well educated life with well entertainment well maintained while the village life means simple life with no entertaining nor education nothing else like all this in city life people spend their life like they have a well and proper schooling proper jobs mean while the village life they have nothing proper no proper schools no proper jobs nothing is proper in villages.

city life: there are some advantages and some disadvantages in city life people are in a well and proper condition they have their own proper infrastructure they have proper schools, jobs and etc. but in city life people keep them self-maintained the spend their life in a maintained life styles the develop their economic growth they work hard to earn for their better lives the dis advantages about city life are that people in city life people come home late use gadgets too much sleep late night and then they woke up late at morning late for their jobs octenyl people go late for prayers.

village life: in village life people work hard for their families they are never late for anything they all ways sleep early and woke early go to farms they do not use gadget too much although they are not clean from their outer conditions but they are clean by their hearts they offer prayers’’ at time they do not come late.

conclusion: in city life people celebrate so many festivals there are hundreds of festival to be celebrated while in villages no festival they do not celebrate any festival not even birthdays too in city life people sleep late and in village they sleep early in villages people do not play with gadgets too much they spend time with their families in city life people play with gadgets from elders till small ages also play with gadgets and too much electricity is wasted on gadgets so please make a promise from now on that do not use gadgets thank you.

The illustration man

It was a warm afternoon in early September when I first met the Illustrated Man. Walking along an asphalt road, I was or the final leg of a two weeks’ walking tour of Wisconsin. Late in the afternoon I stopped, ate some pork, beans, and a doughnut, and was preparing to stretch out and read when the Illustrated Man walked over the hill and stood for a moment against the sky.

 I didn’t know he was Illustrated then. I only knew that he was tall, once well-muscled, but now, for some reason, going to fat. I recall that his arms were long, and the hands thick, but that his face was like a child’s, set upon a massive body. He seemed only to sense my presence, for he didn’t look directly at me when he spoke his first words: 

“Do you know where I can find a job?” 

“I’m afraid not,” I said. 

“I haven’t had a job that’s lasted in forty years,” he said. 

Though it was a hot late afternoon, he wore his wool shirt buttoned tight about his neck. His sleeves were rolled and buttoned down over his thick wrists. Perspiration was streaming from his face, yet he made no move to open his shirt.  

“Well,” he said at last, “this is as good a place as any to spend the night. Do you mind company?” 

“I have some extra food you’d be welcome to,” I said. 

He sat down heavily, grunting. “You’ll be sorry you asked me to stay,” he said. “Everyone always is. That’s why I’m walking. Here it is, early September, the cream of the Labor Day carnival season. I should be making money hand over fist at any small-town side show celebration, but here I am with no prospects.” 

He took off an immense shoe and peered at it closely. “I usually keep a job about ten days. Then something happens and they fire me. By now every carnival in America won’t touch me with a ten-foot pole.” 

“What seems to be the trouble?” I asked. 

For answer, he unbuttoned his tight collar, slowly. With his eyes shut, he put a slow hand to the task of unbuttoning his shirt all the way down. He slipped his fingers in to feel his chest. “Funny,” he said, eyes still shut. “You can’t feel them but they’re there. I always hope that someday I’ll look and they’ll be gone. I walk in the sun for hours on the hottest days, baking, and hope that my sweat’ll wash them off, the sun’ll cook them off, but at sundown they’re still there.” He turned his head slightly toward me and exposed his chest. 

“Are they still there now?” After a long while I exhaled. “Yes,” I said. “They’re still there.” The Illustrations. 

“Another reason I keep my collar buttoned up,” he said, opening his eyes, “is the children. They follow me along country roads. Everyone wants to see the pictures, and yet nobody wants to see them.”  

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Did your school teacher or your tuition teacher or any of your mentor ever tell you to write down things? Reason for me asking this question is, my school teacher used to tell us to write down notes. She used to tell us, that we must write each chapter so that it becomes easy for us to memorize, Every student hates assignment and projects but later on I realize that assignments are given to us, to write, so that we can understand the importance of writing.

Writing is the primary basis upon which history, communication, record keeping and art has begun. Writing is a framework for our communication. Writing improves our written communication. The way speaking improves our verbal communication similarly writing improves our written communication. All writers bloggers earn because of their writing skills. They master in writing skill because they understand the importance of writing. Writing makes us memorize things easily because writing somewhat comes under practical knowledge. when we write down certain points, notes or assignment. While writing our brain repeat the words and while repeating the words it gets memorize in our brain. It gets stored in our subconscious mind which help us during our exams time.

Even mentors ask to write down plan. Mentors asked to make a written plan because it becomes easy to remember written plan and chances of following that plan and goals also improves.  Words can take numerous forms through writing. We can see the use of writing every day in our lives whether to write a mail or to collect data or to communicate with any of our friends or colleagues or family. writing is used everywhere and by everyone.

Writing is not just a word but it’s a great skill and if someone masters this skill then that person can become successful in the writing world. Writing gives you words which helps you to show who you are as a person. Writing can help you to express yourself comfortably. Writing is involved in every field and in every aspect of our lives whether you have a creative field, job field or business field. Every field involves writing. Without writing, you can’t come up with creative and new ideas. Writing helps you to put your imagination into words. Writing gives frame to your imagination and creativity.

Importance of Writing:

1. Writing shows you the real you

Writing helps you to know the real you, writing clarifies your thinking, many a times we make decision or take actions without proper logic and thinking, there are various thoughts and feelings which runs in our mind, but writing habit helps us to crystallize those thoughts and helps us to put them in a logical order.

Read More:

 7 Tips To Complete More Work In Less time

2. Writing can work as your best friend

You must have noticed that many people love to maintain personal diary, and they write daily about their day, what they didn’t like, how they felt etc., the reason why people write is, because writing makes them feel relaxed and while writing their thoughts and feelings becomes clear and they start thinking in different perspective.

Importance of Writing Skills. Expression. Writing is one of the important ways of expressing your thoughts, and communicating ideas and views to others. Some have the innate … Judgment of a Person. Flexibility and Maturity. Ability to Explain. Serves as a Record.

3. Writing is really important in this digital world

Regular writing makes you good in writing, writing improves your written skill and vocabulary, and writing helps you to become a good writer, writing is a very powerful skill, today you can become successful if you are good in writing skill, the digital world requires writing skill.

Read More: Top 5 Hollywood Celebrities Who Love Reading Books

4. Writing gives you a different perspective

When you write for an audience you need to think as per audience perspective, the moment you get into the reader’s mindset. You begin to understand readers, customers your colleagues and friends better. You will have more empathy and also you will start understanding this world more properly and nicely.

Read More: Why Reading Books Is Important?

5. Writing helps you to persuade people

It helps you to influence other people about your point of view, writing has the capability to change the mindset of people, Writing is a skill which has the power to change the world and has the power to change negative mindset to positive, writing has helped our country and this world since very long, Writing played an important role in our Country’s Independence.

Read More:

 How To Manipulate A Manipulator

Thank you

.

The Importance of Writing

Written communication is an essential element of expression; the ability to articulate oneself through the written word provides one with the opportunity to share their knowledge in a meaningful and effective way.

From an educational perspective:

 Developing written skills will enable students to learn how to compose ideas, organize their thoughts and arguments, support key points and share information. Acquiring these skills will also prepare students for their future academic and professional endeavors.

Learning to write is a key aspect of everyday life. 

Writing facilitates reflection, expression and enables individuals to compose their thoughts, therefore providing us with the framework for one of the most prominent methods of daily communication. In an electronic world where verbal communication has become less frequently used, learning to write in a cohesive, structured manner allows individuals to convey their thoughts effectively.

Writing provides us with catharsis and a sense of accomplishment.

 Completing and feeling good about a piece of writing that a student has worked on promotes confidence and this is an essential element to personal productivity in all facets of education. When a student sees a piece of work that they have successfully completed, this leads to positive emotions. We work best when we are happy and feel positive about our achievements. This leads us to continue on a path of success.

The ability to compose critical thought through written articulation allows those who best process information in a visual manner to conceptualize information. 

There are many different types of learners in our world, for example, tactile, auditory and visual, the latter of which requires students and individuals to succeed when processing information visually. Therefore, it is essential to accommodate the myriad of learners in the classroom, and learning to write not only accommodates visual learners but also allows students who struggle in this area to develop their ability to conceive information in a visual manner.

The transition from high school to post-secondary education and beyond. 

Possessing proficient written skills is an essential aspect of education, as students must prepare for the transition from high school to post-secondary education, as well as beyond this, for example, through employment, where possessing written skills is critical.

  1. Importance of Writing Skills. Expression. Writing is one of the important ways of expressing your thoughts, and communicating ideas and views to others. Some have the innate … Judgment of a Person. Flexibility and Maturity. Ability to Explain. Serves as a Record.
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Biography on Issac Newton.

Biography on Issac Newton. 

 Issac Newton was born on 4, January 1643 in woolsthorpe he invented newton law motions in physics he was known as sir Issac Newton P.R.S was an English, Mathemagician, Physicist, Astronomer, Technologien and an author who recognized as a one of the most influential scientists in the world of all the time. Like he was an inventor. He discovered so many things like gravity and the gravitational force and as a key in figure and in the scientific figure in the revolution. 

Issac newton’s education.

Issac newton’s education enrolled was enrolled in august, 21 2019 at the king’s school in Grantham a town in Lincolnshire where he lodged within a local apothecary and he was introduced into the world of fascinating chemistry. His mother pulled him out of school when he was 12 years old. 

Issac Newton (1643).

Issac Newton’s discoveries.

As we all know that before leaving this beautiful world  Issac newton has done so many things as he created so many things and explored them also he wrote books about them he invented the three law motions of physics and math he invented the orbitals and he explored it also etc.he wrote books on so many subjects Maths, Physics, Astronomy, English, etc. 

Books written by Issac Newton.

Issac newton’s top ten inventions. 

He invented so many things like the orbitals. He also invented some of the top ten series like for example: TV, mobiles and ATM machines and the internet that the internet was very fast that it helped people a lot. He was interested in technology he was also an expert in the technology field he was in socializing and he also invented more things than the internet so that people can make their life by themselves. 

The new quantum internet.

The quantum internet. 

The quantum internet was the first technology internet which was invented by Issac newton it was the first internet which came in this world people were using this thing too much the benefit of using this internet was that people can buy their things online, they can pay their bills and school fee challan online it means that they can do anything their life became easy and they were comfortable the path of their life became easier for them. It seems like they started a new life. They were thinking that they were in a comfort zone.

Introduction to ATM Machine.

When their trade was slowly being decreased so they gave an introduction to a new source it was an ATM Machine. It was better for people and trade also. It was like people started to trade with the help of money yes when money came so they gave an introduction to a new mechanical machine it was known as the ATM (automatic transaction machine) it helped people a lot and all like this a new world got started from here they gave a new introduction to a new world. They gave a new birth a new introduction to a new generation the new generation was the technology world. New birth to this world. 

Introduction to the first ATM Machine.

Introduction to VPN.

VPN. why VPN was introduced? VPN was introduced because it was the starter of the new world because the technology was being introduced more and more people were getting in ease they were comfortable they were easy. But when the world was developing so people were said to make their ID, accounts bank accounts and etc so that they can get more comfortable they so can spend their lives easier but the government didn’t think that what about the security of the account and bank accounts and etc. so they gave an introduction to a VPN a (virtual private network) yes a VPN  many people asked about what is a VPN? a VPN is a private code through your google accounts, bank accounts, and your ID can get accessed.

Why is VPN important? 

Yes why is VPN important? VPN is important because it plays an important role in our life [eople also ask why VPN play an important role in our life? as we that VPN means virtual private network VPN plays the role like for example if a person wants to know something about another person like for example his google account or, banking account or his ID so this VPN (a virtual private network) can help the person whose Google account, banking account or his ID is going to be stolen. 

VPN (a virtual private network).

Introduction to Netflix.

What is Netflix we all know one thing that it is an app?but people ask that what is the using purpose of this Netflix I mean what is the using purpose of this app what is special about this app is special because it entertains us? People are asking about this app that what it can do? In ancient civilization when people got tired so they used to play roles like movies, yes it true so coming back to this generation like this Netflix contains so many movies like comedy, animated, adventure and family time. 

Netflix

Introduction to Funtime 

Funtime what is Funtime is also a type of an app that is also for fun like Netflix they have no similarity they both are movie app people also watch movies on this app like on Netflix it also contains movie series like the Netflix like the comedy, animate, adventure and family time. 

Funtime.

Introduction to revolutionary high-speed WiFi

After all, when the world was getting developed it was our world moving ahead so sir Isaac thought that to move our world ahead he gave an introduction to a thing that thing was not common it was a common thing like the others it was a world source who just took our world ahead o to move our world ahead he took a decision why not to distribute the internet into two parts one in balance and the other in net balance like in today’s generation the internet and the balance are divided into 5 subparts 

Internet router

Introduction to ookla.

When the internet came so people were happy they were in a were in excitement after it came to our world but they forgot about the internet speed. People ask that what is internet speed. Internet speed is measured when it is working fastly at your phones so it means that it is fast no to make sure that it is fast we need to measure the speed we need to conduct a speed test so for the speed test use ookla app it measures the speed in fact if a man from any internet company asks o show the previous records of internet speed it saves your all previous records

Ookla speed test.

Introduction to malware.

Malware. Yes so many people ask us that what is malware? Malware is a type of a hard disk which detects problems in your device like about the destroying of hardware and all these type problems any virus it can detect it can detect through anything through its own software it’s known as the world’s best virus detector. People also must be asking where is malware is present.it is present in everything like in the car, mobile, computer, and laptop also.

Introduction to byteface

Byteface yes so many people as us that: what is a byteface? Yes a byteface. As I introduced about the malware and the anti-malware as I said that malware I a computer detector it detects all malware and harddisk it detects your all risky problem like an alert y using the sign of alert. It keeps all your past record of the problem detected. As we all know that it is a malware detector 

Issac newton death history

By the end of the newton’s life, he was one of the most famous scientists in America his preeminence just unchallenged him and he became very wealthy men he was very lucky that he was one of the most famous scientists that he invented so many things like he gave a new birth to a new generation he did so many things for this world he gave so many sacrifices for this world just because of him today we are living in a modern generation in the new modern world our parents gave us a birth so today we all are living in a new modern world and this is known as the industrial revolution how it is known as the industrial revolution it is known as like when the new generation came so industries were invented online generation came our world was changed he died on March 31, 1727

Sir issac newton’s grave

biography on elbert einstine

Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. Six weeks later the family moved to Munich, where he later on began his schooling at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland and in 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship and, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor’s degree.

During his stay at the Patent Office, and in his spare time, he produced much of his remarkable work and in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton*. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.

After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement, he was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined, and he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Einstein always appeared to have a clear view of the problems of physics and the determination to solve them. He had a strategy of his own and was able to visualize the main stages on the way to his goal. He regarded his major achievements as mere stepping-stones for the next advance.

At the start of his scientific work, Einstein realized the inadequacies of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory: this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light.

In his early days in Berlin, Einstein postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation and in 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics.

In the 1920s, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology.

After his retirement he continued to work towards the unification of the basic concepts of physics, taking the opposite approach, geometrisation, to the majority of physicists.

Einstein’s researches are, of course, well chronicled and his more important works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity (English translations, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The Evolution of Physics (1938). Among his non-scientific works, About Zionism (1930), Why War? (1933), My Philosophy (1934), and Out of My Later Years (1950) are perhaps the most important.

Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. During the 1920’s he lectured in Europe, America and the Far East, and he was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world. He gained numerous awards in recognition of his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935.

Einstein’s gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling much in intellectual solitude and, for relaxation, music played an important part in his life. He married Mileva Maric in 1903 and they had a daughter and two sons; their marriage was dissolved in 1919 and in the same year he married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, who died in 1936. He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey.

7 of Albert Einstein’s Inventions that Changed the World

Prolific thinker and inventor Albert Einstein changed the world through his work.

Trevor English

By  Trevor English

July 31, 2019

7 of Albert Einstein's Inventions that Changed the World

JohnsonMartin, sciencefreak

Albert Einstein is thought to have been a genius, and he is considered one of the world’s greatest thinkers. Although he isn’t known for inventions, as with Thomas Edison or Nikola Tesla, Einstein’s theories and ideas related to physics continue to exert influence today. He spent much of his life researching his theories of relativity, investigating space, time, matter, and energy.

Source: Jackie Ramirez/Pixabay

As we think back on this innovative thinker, here are some of Albert Einstein’s most significant achievements and inventions. 

Quantum Theory of Light

Einstein proposed his theory of light, stating that all light is composed of tiny packets of energy, called photons. He suggested these photons were particles but also had wave-like properties, a totally new idea at the time.

He also spent some time outlining the emission of electrons from metals as they were hit with large electric pulses, like lightning. He expanded on this concept of the photoelectric effect, which we’ll discuss later in this article.

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Quantum Theory of Light

Einstein proposed his theory of light, stating that all light is composed of tiny packets of energy, called photons. He suggested these photons were particles but also had wave-like properties, a totally new idea at the time.

He also spent some time outlining the emission of electrons from metals as they were hit with large electric pulses, like lightning. He expanded on this concept of the photoelectric effect, which we’ll discuss later in this article.

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Special Theory of Relativity

In Einstein’s studies, he began to notice inconsistencies of Newtonian mechanics in their relation to the understanding of electromagnetism, specifically Maxwell’s equations. In a paper published in September 1905, he proposed a new way of thinking about the mechanics of objects approaching the speed of light.

This concept became known as Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. It changed the understanding of physics at the time. 

Understanding the Special Theory of Relativity can be a little difficult, but we’ll boil it down to a simple situation. 

He began with the understanding that light always travels at a constant 300,000 km/s, and asked what would happen to our ideas of space and time if that was the case? If you fire a laser at something moving half the speed of light, the laser beam still keeps this constant, and it doesn’t travel at one and a half times the speed of light.

So, he realized that either our measurement of the distance between objects must be wrong or the time taken to travel that distance was greater than expected. 

RELATED: 7 MYTHS ABOUT ALBERT EINSTEIN YOU NEED TO STOP BELIEVING

Einstein realized the answer was both. Space contracts and time dilates as objects move. He determined that motion through space can also be thought of as motion through time. In essence, space and time affect each other, both being relative concepts in relation to the speed of light. 

Avogadro’s Number

For anyone that has made it through a chemistry class, you likely remember Avogadro’s number or it, at least, rings a bell.

While Einstein was working to explain Brownian motion, the erratic movement of particles in a fluid, he also determined an expression for the quantity of Avogadro’s number in terms of measurable quantities. 

All of this meant that scientists now had a way to determine the mass of an atom, or the molar mass for each element on the periodic table.

The Bose-Einstein Condensate

In 1924, Einstein was sent a paper from a physicist by the name of Satyendra Nath Bose. This paper discussed detailed a way to think of light as a gas, filled with indistinguishable particles.

Einstein worked with Bose to extend this idea to atoms, which led to a prediction for a new state of matter: the Bose-Einstein Condensate. The first example of this state was produced in 1995.

Satyendra Nath Bose. Source: Public Domain/Wikimedia Commons

A Bose-Einstein condensate is essentially a group of atoms that are cooled very close to absolute zero. When they reach that temperature, they hardly move in relation to one another. They begin to clump together and enter into exactly the same energy states. This means that, from a physical point of view, the group of atoms behaves as if they were a single atom.

General Theory of Relativity 

In 1916, Einstein published his General Theory of Relativity. This paper generalizes the concepts of Special Relativity and Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation, describing gravity as a property of space and time. This theory has aided our understanding of how the large-scale structure of the universe is set up. 

The Theory of General Relativity can be explained like this:

Newton helped quantify gravity between two objects as a tugging of two bodies, independent of how massive each one is or how far apart they are. 

Einstein determined that the laws of physics hold constant for all non-accelerating observers, that the speed of light is constant no matter how fast the observer travels. He found that space and time were interwoven and that events that occur at one time for one observer could occur at a different time for the next.

This led to his theory that massive objects in space could distort spacetime.

Einstein’s predictions have helped modern physicists study and understand black holes and gravitational lensing.

The Photoelectric Effect

Einstein’s theory of the Photoelectric Effect discusses the emissions of electrons from metal when light shines on it, as we alluded to before. Scientists had observed this phenomenon and had been unable to reconcile the finding with Maxwell’s wave theory of light. 

Source: Wolfmankurd/Wikimedia Commons

His discovery of photons aided the understanding of this phenomenon. He theorized that, as light hits an object, there is an emission of electrons, which he deemed photoelectrons.

This model formed the basis of how solar cells work – light causes atoms to release electrons, which generate a current, and then creating electricity.

Wave-Particle Duality

Einstein’s research into the development of the quantum theory was some of the most impactful he ever accomplished. During his early career, Einstein persisted in asserting that light should be treated as both a wave and a particle. In other words, photons can behave as particles and as waves at the same time. This became known as wave-particle duality.

He is quoted as saying this on the subject, “We are faced with a new kind of difficulty. We have two contradictory pictures of reality; separately neither of them fully explains the phenomena of light, but together they do.”

As we think about all of Einstein’s “inventions,” we have to think of them in the light of his influence. His work advanced modern quantum mechanics, the model of physical time, the understanding of light, solar panels, and even modern chemistry.

Einstein’s has unequivocally influenced our understanding of physics as we know it today.

Elbert einstein death history

Einstein died in April 1955 from an abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had requested that his body be cremated, but in a bizarre incident, Princeton pathologist Thomas Harvey removed his famous brain during his autopsy and kept it in the hope of unlocking the secrets of his genius.Oct 26, 2015

https://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/topics_relativity_conclusion.html

biography on Abraham Lincoln

In this biography basically there were three people they all were against each other and they were Abraham Lincoln, Stephen a Douglas and James Buchanan they all were against each other so the carried a debate they were arguing Lecompton constitution it was a which emerged in 1857 proslavery document they all talked about that proslavery document it took 3 hrs the opening speaker took 1 hr the second speaker took 1.5 hr and the last 3rd opening speaker took 30 mins the focus of their discussions time taken was `21 hrs basically they were divided into two teams 1 was the publican who got more votes than Democrats and from the other side was democrats who got lesser votes then the democrats and (1000-15000) farmers were there to listen the discussion

Abraham Lincoln the 16th president of the United state (u.s).

Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12 in 1809 in a log cabin on the frontier primarily in Indiana on April 15, 1865, he was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of U.S (united states) till (1861-1865) the head of state and government lincoln he led the nation through its greatest constitutional and political crises in the civil war [3] [4]he preserved union abolished slavery he gave strength to the federal government and modernized the U.S economy he was a self-educated man and he became a lawyer in 1849 he returns back to his law practice but he became a vexed by the opening of the additional lands to slavery as a result of Kansas.  Nebraska act and then he retired from politics in 1854 becoming a new leader in the new publican party.

He reached the national audience in the debate of 1855 against Stephen Douglas Lincoln was running for the president in 1860 sweeping the north victory. As he was a modern republican he stood that in the center of the factions with his friends and his opponents Abraham Lincoln managed his reelection and the campaign. 

He fought so many battles like for example the civil war and he was the leader seceding from the union the confederate of the states of America he debated against Douglas and Douglas was defeated Stephens’s real name was Stephen Arnold Douglas.

Stephen A doughglas 

 Stephen doughglas was born on 23 April 1813 hi height was 5’4 his nickname was little giant he was from the democratic party Stephen Arnold Douglas was an American politician and he was also a lawyer from Illinois. He was from the democretic party and he was one of the nominees of that party he nominated for to be the new president he became the president in the year of 1860 and the election which was held for the president for the year 1860 was won by the republicans party.

The election of (1860) 

The election of 1860 was a very tough challenge for Abraham but this challenge was won by Abraham Lincoln the election of 1860 was one of the most pivotal and presidential elections between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas it was also the most an very most memorable moment in the history of America as we all know that Abraham Lincoln was against that democratic party nominee.

Stephen A Douglas 

 and as well as against Stephen Douglas. Stephen Douglas was from  U.S politicians leader of democretic party and debates espoused the cause of in relation to the slavery in the Illinois state territories of American civil war in (1861-1865) he was elected senator from Illinois.

Lincoln and Douglas debates

The historians have already regarded us with the seven series of the debates between Stephen a Douglas and Abraham Lincoln during the year of (1858) the Illinois state election campaign as among as the most significant statements in the history of American politicians The issues that they discussed were not only of critical importance to the sectional conflict over slavery and states rights but also touched deeper questions that would continue to the political discourse. As Abraham Lincoln said that issues would be discussed after these poor judges Douglas and I should be silent. 

It is true that what is overlooked is that debate was the part of a larger campaign they were designed to achieve the certain immediate political objectives and it reflected their characteristics of the mid-nineteenth-century political rhetoric Douglas the member of congress since (1843) and a nationally prominent spokesman who spoke for a democratic party that seeks for reelection to the third term of (u.s)  senate and Lincoln was running for Stephen Douglas’s senate seat as a republican because of Douglas’s political structure the campaign attracted to the national attention.  Its outcome it was thought it can determine the ability of the democratic party to maintain the unity of their face of divisive sectional and slavery issues and somewhere convinced

James Buchanan

James Buchanan 1791- 1868

James Buchanan was born in 1791 in cove gap Pennsylvania he was the 15th president of the country America he was in office from (1857- 1861) during the tenure the seven southern states seceded from the union and the nation teetered on the brink of the civil war a Pennsylvania native Buchanan he started his political career at his home the state’s legislature and he went out to serve his bot of the houses of u.s congress he foreign diplomat and u.s secretary of state Buchanan who was morally opposed to the slavery but he believed that it was protected by u.s constitution was elected to the white house.  As he was president of the year 1856 he tried to maintain peace in pro-slavery and in anti-slavery also. Abraham lincoln (1809-1856) was elected to secede Buchanan South Carolina and the Confederacy was soon established in April (1861) a month after when Buchanan left the office  

James Buchanan’s early years and personal life  

He was a merchant who emigrated from Ireland and Elizabeth Speer in (1767-1833) the younger Buchanan graduated from Dickinson College in Carlisle Pennsylvania and then he started the study of law. He took a part in the battle of defense. He fought so many wars like the war which was held in the year of  1812.  When the terms of held so he was the 16th president of the country America. He died on1st June. James Buchanan was buried in the Buchanan wheatland P.A. 

In this biography basically there were three people they all were against each other and they were Abraham Lincoln, Stephen a Douglas and James Buchanan they all were against each other so the carried a debate they were arguing Lecompton constitution it was a which emerged in 1857 proslavery document they all talked about that proslavery document it took 3 hrs the opening speaker took 1 hr the second speaker took 1.5 hr and the last 3rd opening speaker took 30 mins the focus of their discussions time taken was `21 hrs basically they were divided into two teams 1 was the publican who got more votes than Democrats and from the other side was democrats who got lesser votes then the democrats and (1000-15000) farmers were there to listen the discussion

Abraham Lincoln the 16th president of the United state (u.s).

Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12 in 1809 in a log cabin on the frontier primarily in Indiana on April 15, 1865, he was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of U.S (united states) till (1861-1865) the head of state and government lincoln he led the nation through its greatest constitutional and political crises in the civil war [3] [4]he preserved union abolished slavery he gave strength to the federal government and modernized the U.S economy he was a self-educated man and he became a lawyer in 1849 he returns back to his law practice but he became a vexed by the opening of the additional lands to slavery as a result of Kansas.  Nebraska act and then he retired from politics in 1854 becoming a new leader in the new publican party.

He reached the national audience in the debate of 1855 against Stephen Douglas Lincoln was running for the president in 1860 sweeping the north victory. As he was a modern republican he stood that in the center of the factions with his friends and his opponents Abraham Lincoln managed his reelection and the campaign. 

He fought so many battles like for example the civil war and he was the leader seceding from the union the confederate of the states of America he debated against Douglas and Douglas was defeated Stephens’s real name was Stephen Arnold Douglas.

Stephen A doughglas 

 Stephen doughglas was born on 23 April 1813 hi height was 5’4 his nickname was little giant he was from the democratic party Stephen Arnold Douglas was an American politician and he was also a lawyer from Illinois. He was from the democretic party and he was one of the nominees of that party he nominated for to be the new president he became the president in the year of 1860 and the election which was held for the president for the year 1860 was won by the republicans party.

The election of (1860) 

The election of 1860 was a very tough challenge for Abraham but this challenge was won by Abraham Lincoln the election of 1860 was one of the most pivotal and presidential elections between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas it was also the most an very most memorable moment in the history of America as we all know that Abraham Lincoln was against that democratic party nominee.

Stephen A Douglas 

 and as well as against Stephen Douglas. Stephen Douglas was from  U.S politicians leader of democretic party and debates espoused the cause of in relation to the slavery in the Illinois state territories of American civil war in (1861-1865) he was elected senator from Illinois.

Lincoln and Douglas debates

The historians have already regarded us with the seven series of the debates between Stephen a Douglas and Abraham Lincoln during the year of (1858) the Illinois state election campaign as among as the most significant statements in the history of American politicians The issues that they discussed were not only of critical importance to the sectional conflict over slavery and states rights but also touched deeper questions that would continue to the political discourse. As Abraham Lincoln said that issues would be discussed after these poor judges Douglas and I should be silent. 

It is true that what is overlooked is that debate was the part of a larger campaign they were designed to achieve the certain immediate political objectives and it reflected their characteristics of the mid-nineteenth-century political rhetoric Douglas the member of congress since (1843) and a nationally prominent spokesman who spoke for a democratic party that seeks for reelection to the third term of (u.s)  senate and Lincoln was running for Stephen Douglas’s senate seat as a republican because of Douglas’s political structure the campaign attracted to the national attention.  Its outcome it was thought it can determine the ability of the democratic party to maintain the unity of their face of divisive sectional and slavery issues and somewhere convinced

James Buchanan

James Buchanan 1791- 1868

James Buchanan was born in 1791 in cove gap Pennsylvania he was the 15th president of the country America he was in office from (1857- 1861) during the tenure the seven southern states seceded from the union and the nation teetered on the brink of the civil war a Pennsylvania native Buchanan he started his political career at his home the state’s legislature and he went out to serve his bot of the houses of u.s congress he foreign diplomat and u.s secretary of state Buchanan who was morally opposed to the slavery but he believed that it was protected by u.s constitution was elected to the white house.  As he was president of the year 1856 he tried to maintain peace in pro-slavery and in anti-slavery also. Abraham lincoln (1809-1856) was elected to secede Buchanan South Carolina and the Confederacy was soon established in April (1861) a month after when Buchanan left the office  

James Buchanan’s early years and personal life  

He was a merchant who emigrated from Ireland and Elizabeth Speer in (1767-1833) the younger Buchanan graduated from Dickinson College in Carlisle Pennsylvania and then he started the study of law. He took a part in the battle of defense. He fought so many wars like the war which was held in the year of  1812.  When the terms of held so he was the 16th president of the country America. He died on1st June. James Buchanan was buried in the Buchanan wheatland P.A. 

He was a merchant who emigrated from Ireland and Elizabeth Speer in (1767-1833) the younger Buchanan graduated from Dickinson College in Carlisle Pennsylvania and then he started the study of law. He took a part in the battle of defense. He fought so many wars like the war which was held in the year of  1812.  When the terms of held so he was the 16th president of the country America. He died on1st June. James Buchanan was buried in the Buchanan wheatland P.A. 

Introduce Yourself (Example Post)

This is an example post, originally published as part of Blogging University. Enroll in one of our ten programs, and start your blog right.

You’re going to publish a post today. Don’t worry about how your blog looks. Don’t worry if you haven’t given it a name yet, or you’re feeling overwhelmed. Just click the “New Post” button, and tell us why you’re here.

Why do this?

  • Because it gives new readers context. What are you about? Why should they read your blog?
  • Because it will help you focus your own ideas about your blog and what you’d like to do with it.

The post can be short or long, a personal intro to your life or a bloggy mission statement, a manifesto for the future or a simple outline of your the types of things you hope to publish.

To help you get started, here are a few questions:

  • Why are you blogging publicly, rather than keeping a personal journal?
  • What topics do you think you’ll write about?
  • Who would you love to connect with via your blog?
  • If you blog successfully throughout the next year, what would you hope to have accomplished?

You’re not locked into any of this; one of the wonderful things about blogs is how they constantly evolve as we learn, grow, and interact with one another — but it’s good to know where and why you started, and articulating your goals may just give you a few other post ideas.

Can’t think how to get started? Just write the first thing that pops into your head. Anne Lamott, author of a book on writing we love, says that you need to give yourself permission to write a “crappy first draft”. Anne makes a great point — just start writing, and worry about editing it later.

When you’re ready to publish, give your post three to five tags that describe your blog’s focus — writing, photography, fiction, parenting, food, cars, movies, sports, whatever. These tags will help others who care about your topics find you in the Reader. Make sure one of the tags is “zerotohero,” so other new bloggers can find you, too.

Introduce Yourself (Example Post)

This is an example post, originally published as part of Blogging University. Enroll in one of our ten programs, and start your blog right.

You’re going to publish a post today. Don’t worry about how your blog looks. Don’t worry if you haven’t given it a name yet, or you’re feeling overwhelmed. Just click the “New Post” button, and tell us why you’re here.

Why do this?

  • Because it gives new readers context. What are you about? Why should they read your blog?
  • Because it will help you focus your own ideas about your blog and what you’d like to do with it.

The post can be short or long, a personal intro to your life or a bloggy mission statement, a manifesto for the future or a simple outline of your the types of things you hope to publish.

To help you get started, here are a few questions:

  • Why are you blogging publicly, rather than keeping a personal journal?
  • What topics do you think you’ll write about?
  • Who would you love to connect with via your blog?
  • If you blog successfully throughout the next year, what would you hope to have accomplished?

You’re not locked into any of this; one of the wonderful things about blogs is how they constantly evolve as we learn, grow, and interact with one another — but it’s good to know where and why you started, and articulating your goals may just give you a few other post ideas.

Can’t think how to get started? Just write the first thing that pops into your head. Anne Lamott, author of a book on writing we love, says that you need to give yourself permission to write a “crappy first draft”. Anne makes a great point — just start writing, and worry about editing it later.

When you’re ready to publish, give your post three to five tags that describe your blog’s focus — writing, photography, fiction, parenting, food, cars, movies, sports, whatever. These tags will help others who care about your topics find you in the Reader. Make sure one of the tags is “zerotohero,” so other new bloggers can find you, too.

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